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Residential burning in Slovakia PDF Print E-mail

In Slovakia local heating or solid fuels burning in households are responsible for the majority of ultrafine particles emissions: 63.7 % PM10 and 77.8 % PM2.5, as well as 43.1 % CO and 45 % NMVOC (1, 2017). According to the estimations of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic, there are approximately 350,000 households in Slovakia burning solid fuels. 36 % of these households use boilers older than 30 years (2).

IMG 3696 DomyDymia VyrMini

Residential burning emissions are not harmless. They bring about pneumonia, cardiovascular diseases, premature mortality etc. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic, too. They pollute not only outdoor environment where people breathe the emissions, but also indoor air in the households where solid fuel is used for burning.

In addition to standard firewood, there are also coal, wet or poorly dried wood, and even waste that are still burnt in Slovak stoves and boilers. It aggravates the situation even more.

IMG 7333 Krb-MiniHarmfulness and amount of emissions from solid fuel burning are considerably effected by:

1 Type of burning device - modern stoves produce even 10 times lower emissions than the older ones.

2 Fuel quality – coal and wet or poorly dried wood are unacceptable.

3 Way of burning – the problem occurs especially when there is a lack of air, or if there is not bright flame and wood only glows and emits smoke.

For more information how to heat properly read „Kúrenie v domácnosti trochu inak“(3).

In our opinion, coal should not be burnt at all in the areas with worsen air quality, especially in towns (4). In case of solid fuels burning, only dry wood should be used in these areas (moisture up to 20 %). The possibility of regulation or the ban on solid fuels burning under bad dispersion conditions, when there is inversion or no wind, should be implemented, too. If the building is sufficiently insulated, we consider solar panels, heat pumps, electricity or biogas produced from bio-waste to be a long-term appropriate low-emission alternative to heat sources.

In compliance with the calculations of the civic association CEPTA there is a fundamental difference in the types of stove and fuel, even if we still consider wood burning. Heating with wood pellets in an automatic boiler causes 9.4 g of PM2.5 emissions/GJ and heating with standard dry wood in a gasification boiler results in 45.3 g of PM2.5/GJ. Old stove produces 90.6 g of PM2.5/GJ. It is nearly 10 times more than in case of the pellet boiler. If poorly dried wood of the moisture of above 30 % is burnt (this wood was dried in the aired and covered area for the period of one year at least), its burning in the old stove causes emissions of 446.4 g PM2.5/GJ. Burning of brown coal brings about emissions of 848.6g PM2.5/GJ. Gas heating in a condensing boiler leads to the production of emissions at the level of 0.6 g PM2.5/GJ. Two-storey house that is not thermally insulated has a consumption of approximately 110 GJ a year.

lok-kur CZ-DK miniResidential burning emissions are more in detail analysed in a recently published publication of the European project CLEAN HEAT: „Pollution from residential burning - Danish experience in an international perspective (created by DEC)“, which was translated into Czech under the title: „ZNEČIŠTĚNÍ Z DOMÁCÍCH TOPENIŠŤ, Dánská zkušenosti v medzinárodní perspektivě“. This publication is available for downloading on the website HERE (5).

This paper originated within the project  PreOvzdušieSK, which is supported from the European Social Fund.

logo-OP-EVS-farba-svklogo-EU-ESF-farba-svk

 

Sources:

1. https://www.enviroportal.sk/indicator/detail?id=141&print=yes

2. https://spravy.pravda.sk/domace/clanok/527722-domacnosti-budu-moct-vdaka-dotacii-vymenit-kotly-na-tuhe-palivo/

3. http://vykurovanie.enviroportal.sk/kurenie.aspx

4. https://euractiv.sk/section/ekonomika-a-euro/news/spalovanie-uhlia-a-dreva-do-domacnosti-nepatri-kotlikovym-dotaciam-ale-zatial-chyba-socialny-rozmer/

5. https://www.clean-heat.eu/en/actions/info-material.html

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This paper originated within the project

Last Updated on Thursday, 28 May 2020 17:37
 
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